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研究生考试英语应用文写作全攻略

编辑:在职研究生

        应用文写作-摘要和报告

        摘要

  1.写作攻略

  摘要是对原始文献(或文章)的基本内容进行浓缩并写成语义连贯的短文。它以迅速掌握原文内容梗概为目的,不需加入任何主观评论和解释,但必须简明、确切地表述原文的重要内容。摘要写作要求简明扼要,用词准确。摘要题型写作是难度非常大的一种写作形式。随着考生英语水平的不断提高,这种题型引起考生的普遍重视。写作摘要时应该注意以下几点:

  (1)动笔之前,考生一定要认真仔细地阅读所给原文,力求抓住其大意,掌握原文要点。 如果一遍不能明白,可以多读几次,读的次数越多越容易明白文章大意。

  (2)摘要的长度不应超过原文的三分之一,一般是原文的四分之一或五分之一,考试时应遵守规定的字数限制。

  (3)在做摘要时考生切忌照搬原文,应该用自己的语言来写。一篇摘要应该是语言的再创造,而不是原文词语的简单堆砌。

  (4)摘要应与原文的观点保持一致,为了使摘要条理清晰,无特殊情况应按原文的逻辑顺序排列。

  (5)摘要要做到内容完整,没有大的遗漏,使读者无需查看原文就能够获得原文的主要内容。应重点反映主要观点,删除细节。

  (6)削除例子,简化描述。用简短的语句代替冗长的语句。

  (7)检查与修改时,考生应重点检查是否遗漏了原文的要点或包含了细节。

  另外,写摘要时应该使用简单的衔接词,如but,then,thus,yet,for等等,而不能使用at the same time,on the other hand 等。

  2.必背模版句型

  This paper mainly deals with……

  这篇论文主要是写……

  This article focuses on the topics of (that,having,etc)……

  这篇文章的强调的主题是……

  This essay presents knowledge that……

  这篇短文主要是讲关于……的知识。

  This thesis discusses/analyzes……

  这篇论文讨论/分析了……

  This paper provides an overview of……

  这篇文章综述了……

  This article compares……and summarizes key findings.

  这篇文章比较了……并总结了主要的发现。

  This paper presents up-to-date information on……

  这篇论文介绍了关于……的最新信息。

  This article not only describes……but also suggests……

  这篇文章不仅描述了……而且建议……

  This paper provides a method of ……

  这篇为……提供了方法。

  This paper introduces an applicable procedure to analyze……

  这篇文章介绍一种分析……的可行程序。

  This paper is devoted to examining the role of……

  这篇论文致力于研究……的作用。

  This paper reflects the state of the art in……

  这篇论文展示了……目前的情况。

  This article reviews the techniques used in……

  这篇文章综述了……领域采用的技术。

  The writer of this essay tries to explore……

  本文作者试图探讨……

  The aim/purpose/objective of this paper is to determine……

  本文的目的/目标是为了决定……

  3.必背经典范文

  将下面这篇约500词的原文按要求写成约150词的摘要。

  原文:

  How New York Became America's Largest City

  In the 18th century New York was smaller than Philadelphia and Boston.Today it is the largest city in America.How can the change in its size and importance be explained?

  To answer this question we must consider certain facts about geography,history,and economics.Together these three will explain the huge growth of Americas most famous city.

  The map of the Northeast shows that four of the most heavily populated areas in this region are around seaports.At these points materials from across the sea enter the United States,and the product of the land are sent there for export across the sea.

  Economists know that places where transportation lines meet are good places for making raw materials into finished goods.That is why seaports often have cities nearby.But cities like New York needed more than their geographical location in order to become great industrial centers.Their development did not happen simply by chance.

  About 1815,when many Americans from the east coast had already moved toward the west,trade routes from the ports to the central regions of the country began to be a serious problem. The slow wagons of that time,drawn by horses or oxen,were too expensive for moving heavy freight very far. Americans had long admired Europe's canals.In New York State a canal seemed the best solution to the transportation problem.From the eastern end of Lake Erie all the way across the state to the Hudson River there is a long strip of low land.Here the Erie Canal was constructed. After several years of work it was completed in 1825.

  The canal produced an immediate effect.Freight costs were cut to about one-tenth of what had been.New York City,which had been smaller than Philadelphia and Boston,quickly became the leading city of the coast.In the years that followed,transportation routes on the Great Lakes were joined to routes on the Mississippi River.Then New York City became the end point of a great inland shipping system that extended from the Atlantic Ocean far up the western branches of the Mississippi.

  The coming of the railroads made canal shipping less important,but it tied New York even more closely to the central regions of the country.It was easier for people in the central states to ship their goods to New York for export overseas.

  Exports from New York were greater than imports.Consequently,shipping companies were eager to fill their ships with passengers on the return trip from Europe.Passengers could come from Europe very cheaply as a result.

  Thus New York became the greatest port for receiving people from European countries. Many of these people remained in the city.Others stayed in New York for a few weeks,months,or years,and then moved to other parts of the United States.For these great number of new Americans New York had to provide homes,goods,and services.Their labor helped the city be come great.

  摘要

  How New York Became America's Largest City

  New York was once smaller than Philadelphia and Boston,but now it is America's largest city because of geography,history and economics.

  New York was located at the seaport where materials were imported to the US and the products of the US were sent abroad across the sea.The city was further developed when the Erie Canal was completed in 1825.This linked Lake Erie to New York via the Hudson River and the cost of transporting goods to those who had settled inland was cut down.In addition,the Great Lakes were soon linked to the Mississippi.Later,railroads tied New York closer to the central states,whose goods were exported via New York.Fewer goods were imported,so cheap passages were available from Europe.New York became the main port for receiving Europeans,many of whom stayed in the city and helped it become great.

  报告

  1.写作攻略

  报告是下级部门就某件事情向上级部门和领导回报工作、反映情况、提出建议等使用的上行公文。就其内容实质来说,可分为信息类报告和分析类报告。信息类报告在日常事务中经常发生,其目的是通报信息和情况,一般要求准确、正确、完整、简明扼要。分析类报告在语言和格式上则更加正式、复杂,其目的在于对某问题或情况进行调查、研究、分析、评估或论证后提出结论,篇幅一般较长。报告的写作主要有以下要求:

  (1)写好一份报告,撰写人首先要对所要写的内容有充分的了解。写作时,应尽量多用被动语态,少用第一人称,以免主观、冒昧。

  (2)一般英文报告都可采用书信格式。

  (3)报告要有明确的中心思想、清楚的段落层次和合理的结构安排。

  2.必背模版句型

  The report is hereby made to ask for the approval of the board for the solution of the problem.

  请董事会批准这件事的解决方案。

  This report will summarize……

  本报告将总结……

  The report provides an introduction to……

  本报告介绍了……

  The operation on…… is under smooth way.

  ……的运行很正常。

  This report only provides guidelines they can use to assess their own needs.

  本报告尽为他们评估自身需求提供一些指导。

  May I have your approval of……by the end of this month?

  月底之前我能得到您就……的批准吗?

  We will fulfill the task ahead of time.

  我们将提前完成任务。

  Upon the request of the committee,we have conducted the report.

  应委员会的请求,我们完成了这份报告。

  3.必背经典范文

  To:Mr. Johnson

  From:Li Nan

  Subject:Ship Accident off West Coast of The Yangtze River,No Casualties.

  Date:April.4,2005

  Yesterday evening two boats collided in thick fog in The Yangtze River not far from Wu Han. One was a cargo ship carrying lumber,apparently on its way to The Yangtze River. The other was a National ferry on its regular run from Jiu Jiang to Wu Han.

  However,because of the weather conditions,the captains did not realize the danger until a few seconds before the collision took place. Consequently,there was no time for them to prevent the accident.

  Fortunately,there were no casualties among the crews or passengers,but both ships suffered badly damages.

  A spokesman for the port authorities said that a committee would be set up to determine the cause of the collision.

  Sincerely yours,

  Li Nan

  译文

  收信人:约翰逊先生

  发信人:李楠

  主题:长江西岸撞船事故,无伤亡

  日期:2005年4月4日

  昨晚在距武汉不远处,长江上的两艘船在浓雾中相撞。其中一艘为装运木材的货船,正向长江驶来;另外一艘是国家渡船正从九江到武汉正常航行。

  但是由于恶劣的天气,船长知道撞击发生前几秒才意识到危险。 结果根本没有时间避免事故的发生。

  幸运的是船员和乘客都没有伤亡,但船的损害相当严重。

  船运部门发言人说会成立事故调查小组彻底调查事故原因。

  你诚挚的:李楠

    应用文写作-备忘录

   备忘录

  1.写作攻略

  备忘录是一种录以备忘的公文,在机关或公司内部使用最多。主要用来通报消息(会议安排、情况报告、责任确认、问题处理)、回复来函、评估成绩等内部公务。

  备忘录一般包括以下几部分:

  * 收件人姓名、职务;

  * 发件人姓名、职务;

  * 保密级别:分为三类top secret,secret,confidential,一般备忘录不用保密,这一栏就空着;

  * 文件编号:发件人方文件编号和收件人方文件编号;

  * 发件日期;

  * 备忘录标题线;

  * 正文;

  * 签名、职务;

  * 誊写备忘录的人和打字员姓名首字母缩写;

  * 附件数目;

  * 抄送:如果送给收件人以外的人时要注明。

  写备忘录时要注意以下几点:

  (1)第一句话就要明白交代写此备忘录的目的。如果回复别人的备忘录要注明对方写备忘录的时间。

  (2)备忘录中交代的事情应该简明扼要,一段话说明一个意思。

  (3)如在备忘录中通知信息,语言一定要准确,避免产生歧义。

  (4)最后要用一句话总结,强调读备忘录的人要尽快做出反应。

  2.必背模版句型

  I have the honor to inform you that……

  我很荣幸地通知您……

  I would like to remind you that our office is in want of a new English typewriter.

  我想提醒您一下,我们办公室急需一部英文打字机。

  I have several proposals for cutting down the cost.

  关于降低成本我有几个建议。

  In response to your request for…… I have to inform you that we can not approve it.

  对于你……的请求,我不得不告诉你我们不能批准。

  This is further to your memo dated June 6,2006,in which you proposed that employees adopt the "punchin" system.

  回复你2006年6月6日关于员工实行打卡考勤制度的备忘录。

  The board of directors approved your proposal at the meeting last week.

  董事会在上周的会议上通过了你的建议。

  I believe these changes will decrease the product cost.

  我相信这些改革会降低成本的。

  Please let me know your response to these suggestions.

  我想知道你对于这些建议的看法。

  Please feel free to contact me if you need further information.

  如果需要更多信息请随时与我联系。

  I highly appreciate your considerations to these proposals.

  我期待你能考虑一下这些建议。

  3.必背经典范文

  To:Carl Fowler

  From:Jane Larson

  Subject:Scheduling the film

  Date:March 13,2006

  We'd better rearrange the showing schedule for next week's film.

  As you know,we are going to show the film,The Smiths,next week in the projection room,which holds only fifty people comfortably without overcrowding. It is not big enough for the whole staff to see the film at the same time. So I suggest we show the film in different times. For example,we can arrange 40 people to see the film there on Tuesday at 3:00 p.m.,and the remaining 40 on Thursday at the same time.

  If there's any problem about this arrangement,please let me know.

  Jane Larson

    C. Stan Clark

  译文

  收件人:卡尔·福勒

  发件人:简·拉森

  主题:电影日程安排

  日期:2006年3月13日

  我们最好能够重新安排下周电影的播放时间。

  你知道我们打算下周在放映厅播放《史密斯夫妇》这部电影,但放映厅只能同时容纳50人。我们的员工不能同时看电影。所以我建议在将放映时间选在不同时段。比如,40人在周二下午3点在那里看这部影片,剩下的40人在周四同一时间同一地点观看。

  如果对此安排有什么问题请通知我。

    简·拉森

  抄送:斯坦·克拉克

    应用文写作-私人信函

 (Letter)是用以交涉事务、增进了解、联络友谊、交流思想的重要工具。英语信函主要包括私人信函(Personal Letters)和公务信函(Business Letters)两大类。公务信函,一般用来处理或讨论重要事务,包括邀请信(Invitation Letter)、感谢信(Thankyou Letter)、道歉信(Letter of Apologies)、祝贺信(Letter of Congratulations)等。按照一般的格式英语信函主要由六个部分组成:信头、信内地址、称呼、正文、结句、签名;有的信函还包括附言和附件部分(常用P.S.表示)。

  信头(Heading)

  信头由发信人地址和发信日期两部分组成,通常写在第一页的右上角。行首可以缩进去写,也可以齐头写;行尾可用也可不用标点符号。值得注意的是,英语书信中的地址与中文正好相反,应该由小到大,先写门牌号码、街名,再写城市名、州(省)名、邮编、最后再写国名。如:

  No. 256,Chaoyang Street

  Beijing,100069,China

  日期的写法英、美两种格式都可以,英国顺序为“日、月、年”,美国顺序则为“月、日、年”,如:

  27 Sep.,2006(英)

  Sep. 27,2006(美)

  信内地址(Inside Address)

  包括收信人的姓名和地址,一般置于信纸的左上角。在私人信函中,这一部分经常省略。其格式和发信人的姓名、地址一样。

  称呼(Salutation)

  称呼位于收信人地址之下的一至二行,顶格写起,自成一行。在私人信函中后面用逗号,在公务信函中则用冒号。

  正文(The Body of the Letter)

  信件的主要内容。

  结句(Complimentary Closure)

  类似于中文中的“此致”“敬礼”这类的话,主要是一些套语。一般是正文结束隔两行另起,独立成行,位于信纸的右角,也可以略居中右方。

  签名

  写信人的名字一般签在结尾语下面一至二行处。在私人信函中只需亲笔签名就可以了,而在公务信函中,发信人的亲笔签名应该写在结尾套语和打印的姓名之间。

  以上几点是英语信函的共同特征。为了考生更好地掌握英语信函的写法,下面几部分将详细讲解私人信函和公务信函的具体写法,并为考生提供了经典句型和范文。

  一、私人信函

  1.写作攻略

  私人信函是一个宽泛的概念,它既可以指公务信函以外的一切信函,也可以指与家人或朋友之间互通信息、感情这一特定类型的信件。这里我们指后者。

  私人信函与其他形式的信函最根本的区别在于,私人信函纯粹是出于自愿,就像是同远方的亲友聊家常一样。其内容可以是简短的几句问候、通报近期的情况、抒发对亲友的想念等等。私人信函的格式和其他信函基本一致,不过与其他信函相比,稍微随便一些。

  地址一般写在信纸的右上角,可用斜列式也可用齐头式,如果是收信人熟悉的地址也可以省略不写,但日期是不能省略的。称呼一般视与收信人的关系而定,一般来说应用比较亲近的称呼。正文部分尽量有感而发,写作时要十分注重感情的真挚。如果对方在上次的信中提出过什么问题,应该先回答,同时也可以问对方一些问题,以表示对他/她的关切。私人信函的基本写作结构为“问候及表达写信人的思念之情——询问收信人的近况——向收信人讲述自己的情况——以提议、建议或请求结尾”。在写给私人信函中可以常用的结尾套语如Yours,、 With love, 、With best wishes、Your affectionately, 、Yours sincerely,等等。当然在实际写作中,要仔细审题,弄清楚题目给定的情景,根据要求进行写作。

  2.必背模版句式

  How time flies!And it's five months since you left. Do you know how we have been missing you lately?

  光阴似箭!一晃我们分别已经5个月了。你知道我们最近有多想念你吗?

  Thanks for your letter on June 1st. I'm now answering your letter and telling you my opinion.

  感谢你6月1日的来信。我现在给你回信,说说我的看法。

  You have no idea how excited I was when I received your letter!I was nearly crazy!

  你一定想不到收到你的来信我是多么地激动!我几乎都快疯了!

  It is hard to believe two years have passed since I left Beijing for Japan. How are you going on these days?

  真没想到转眼间我离开北京来日本已有两年了。你最近怎么样?

  I am delighted to hear you will be coming to Beijing and will be able to visit my family.

  听说你要来北京,还要来我家玩我非常高兴。

  I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.

  我期待着能够很快收到你的回信。

  Be sure to write soon. I am eager to hear from you.

  记得要早点回信,我很想早点收到你的来信。

  3、必背经典范文

  范文1

  Aug. 12,2006

  Dear Mum and Dad,

  I am sorry for not having written to you for such a long time. I am afraid you must think I have forgotten you and the whole family. Actually I really miss you,but I have been busy preparing my exam these days. And now I have passed the exam and feel very relaxed as if a heavy burden has been removed. I can't help waiting to write to you and so here I am.

  What about Dad's health?Is he still coughing at night?I have been worrying about it. The last day I saw an advertisement on a newspaper introducing a new kind of syrup which is said to have magic effect on coughing. I have bought one bottle and sent it back home by post. Have you received it?What about the effect?

  Please write to me soon,I am eager to hear from you.

  Your daughter,

  Li Hua

  译文

  亲爱的爸爸妈妈:

  我为这么长时间没有给你们写信而感到抱歉,恐怕你们都认为我把你们和家人都忘了吧。其实我真的非常想念你们,但这些日子我在忙着准备考试。现在考试通过了,我感觉如释重负,迫不及待地要提笔给你们写信。

  爸爸的身体怎么样?晚上还咳嗽吗?我一直非常担心。前几天我在报纸上看到一则广告,其中介绍了的那种咳嗽药,据说有奇效。我已经买了一瓶寄回去了。你们收到了吗?效果怎么样?

  尽快给我回信好吗?我早就想收到你们的信了。

  女儿:李华

  2006年8月12日

  范文2

  June. 3,2006

  Dear Mr. Liang,

  It is almost half a year since you saw me off. I can still vividly recall the impressive scenes you gave. And I could never forget what affectionate care you showed me by helping me carry my suitcase. You can't imagine how I have been missing you these days.

  From a recent letter from Mr. Chin I am glad to learn that you have returned to the University. I hope you have been getting along well with your life and studies. I am sending you under separate cover a copy of the latest issue of Times. I hope you will find it interesting and useful for your English.

  I would greatly appreciate hearing from you soon.

  Yours sincerely,

  Wang Ning

  译文

  亲爱的梁先生:

  自从分别以来,已有半年时间。你对我的种种情谊,我至今记忆犹新。我永远都不能忘记你给我的友好照顾,如帮我拎皮箱。你肯定想不到这段日子以来我是多么地想念你。

  近日从陈先生的来信得知你又回到大学上学了,我非常高兴。希望你生活和学习都很满意。现另包寄上最近出版的《时代》杂志。相信你看后一定会觉得有意思,并对你的英语学习有帮助的。

  期盼尽快收到你的回信。

  王宁

  2006年6月3日

    应用文写作-邀请信

    邀请信

  1.写作攻略

  邀请信是写信人对收信人的一种盛情邀约,一般分为正式的和非正式的两种。格式与其他信函相同。具体写作步骤:

  首段:说明与收信人的相关性与写作意图。

  主体段落:具体交代情景:包括受邀请的人、邀请朋友要干什么、地点以及具体的时间等内容。并且强调为什么邀请收信人而不是别的朋友。

  结尾段:表示期待朋友的回复。

  就本质而言正式与非正式的邀请信并没有什么区别,只是正式的邀请信比较注意文采,而且往往需要表现出更大的热诚。邀请信一般都要求考生邀约朋友参加特殊聚会,共度假期,或者访问自己的家乡等,考生可以采用半正式文体。

  2.必背模版句式

  I am writing to invite you to……

  我写信是想邀请你……

  I think it would be a great idea if you could participate in……

  我想如果你能参加……将是一个非常好的主意。

  I wonder if you can come……

  我在想你是否能来参加……

  How would you like to join us in……?

  你想不想来参加我们的……?

  Would you please drop me a line to let me know if you can come to……?

  你可以打电话来告诉我你能否来……?

  My family and I would feel much honored if you could come.

  如果你能来我们全家都将感到不胜荣幸。

  I really hope you can make it.

  我真的希望你能来。

  We would be looking forward to your coming with great pleasure.

  我们高兴地期待着你的到来。

  I would like to meet you there and please let me know your decision soon.

  我希望能在那见到你,请早点让我知道你的决定。

  3.必背经典范文

  Dear Jane,

  I am going to have a dinner party at my house on July 14,2006 (Friday) to celebrate my mother's 60 year old birthday. It is an important occasion for our family,and as you are a close friend of us,my parents and I do hope you can come and share our joy.

  The party will start at seven o'clock in the evening. There will be a small musical soiree,at which a band will perform some popular and classical songs at first. At around eight o'clock,we will start our dinner,during which we can talk and laugh together. And then all the friends will take some photos together.

  I know you have been busy these days,but I do hope you can make it,my family and I look forward to the pleasure of your company.

  Yours affectionately,

  Gao Hui

  译文

  亲爱的简:

  我打算于2006年7月14日(星期五)在我家举行一个晚宴,庆祝我母亲60大寿。这对我们全家来说是一件大事,作为我们全家的好朋友,我们真诚地希望你能来参加,分享我们的快乐。

  晚宴将于7点开始。首先会有一个小型的演奏会,届时我们将欣赏到乐队演奏的流行和古典歌曲。8点左右我们开始用餐,朋友们可以随便聊天欢笑。最后所有的朋友们一起照相作为纪念。

  我知道你最近很忙,但我真的希望你能来,我们全家都在期待着你的光临。

  你的老朋友:高慧

    应用文写作-感谢信

    感谢信

  1.写作攻略

  感谢信是对收信人的某一行为表示感谢。感谢信的使用频率非常高,在收到别人的邀请时,受到别人的表扬时,反正只要对方帮助过你,不管大小都应该表示感谢。感谢信带有浓厚的感情浓厚,所表达的感情必须真挚。具体写作步骤:

  首段:表明写作意图,让对方感受到你的谢意是发自内心的。

  主体段落:写明感谢的原因,要展开说明,可以说具体的理由也可以说接受帮助的具体事例。比如说你在一家旅馆住了一段时间,在那里度过了一段美好的时光,你就可以写信表示感谢。你可以从旅馆的服务、客房环境、饮食卫生等方面来说明感谢的理由。这样展开就使文章显得充实丰满,也符合正常交际的习惯。

  结尾段:再次表示感谢。

  2.必背模版句型

  I am writing to express my thanks for……

  我写这封信是为了表达我对……的谢意。

  I would like to convey in this letter my heartfelt thanks to you for……

  在信中我要为……表达我真挚的谢意。

  Thank you so much for the gift you sent me. It's one of the most wonderful gifts I ever got.

  非常感谢你给我寄来的礼物,这是我收到的最好礼物之一。

  Many thanks for all the good things you have done in helping us to……

  非常感谢您为帮助我们……所做的一切。

  I would like to take this opportunity to express my great appreciation for your timely help and assistance.

  我谨借此机会感谢您给予我们的及时帮助和支持。

  On behalf of my whole family,I would like to extend my sincere gratitude for……

  我谨代表我全家对……表示真诚的感激之情。

  Nothing will be able to erase our wonderful memories,we will nurture them forever.

  没什么能抹掉我们美好的记忆,我们会永远铭刻在心。

  Thanks again for your kind help.

  对你的帮助再次表示感谢。

  My true gratitude is beyond any words description.

  任何语言都不能表达我的真挚谢意。

  Please accept my thanks,now and always.

  请永远记住我的谢意。

  Your help is very much appreciated by each one of us.

  我们每个人都非常感谢你。

  3.必背经典范文

  Dear staff,

  I am writing to show my sincere gratitude for all of you. Now that I am home and on my own again I feel extremely happy. During the time I lived at the Rehabilitation center and was under your tender care,I promised myself I would write a letter of thanks as soon as I was able.

  Abundant thanks to each one of you for your patience,expertise and genuine concern. It was you who helped me believe in myself and gave me assurance that I could walk again. I would never forget each word you said to me and the things you have done to me. Forgive me for the times I lashed out at you in frustration and thank you for understanding and remaining firm with me.

  Never stop your beautiful way of working with people. Your help really means a lot to me and anyone who in trouble as well.

  Affectionately,

  Wang Fang

  译文

  亲爱的全体工作人员:

  我写这封信是为了表达我对你们的真诚感谢。现在我又可以一个人在家了,我真的非常高兴。我在康复中心接受你们的关照时,就已经决心只要一有时间就给你们写感谢信了。

  对于你们每个人的耐心、专业精神和关心我表示深深地感谢。是你们使我相信自己能够站着走路。你们说的每一句话、做过的每一件事我都不会忘记。请原谅我在受挫时对你们大发脾气,谢谢你们的理解和对我的严格要求。

  继续你们美丽的事业吧。你们的帮助对于我和其他需要帮助的人来说有着非常重要的意义。

  你们的朋友:

  王芳

    应用文写作-道歉信

   道歉信

  1.写作攻略

  道歉信主要是向收信人表明歉意,请求对方谅解自己的过失。写道歉信时要明确不是找借口为自己辩护,而是承认自己的过错并提出弥补过错的具体建议和方法。此类信件的关键是用词准确,表达真诚。具体写作步骤:

  首段:重述自己做错的事,表示歉意。

  主体段落:说明道歉的具体原因,应尽量详细描述做错事的经过。写信时应该注意在申述理由时要照顾读信人的感受,切忌强词夺理。

  结尾段:再次表明承认错误的态度,请求收信人的谅解。也可以提出补救的办法。

  2.必背模版句型

  I would like to give you my apology for……

  对于……我向你道歉。

  Please accept my sincere apology for……

  请接受我关于……的真诚道歉。

  I am indeed very sorry for what I said/did,but believe I had no intention to insult you.

  对于我说的话/做过的事,我确实感到很抱歉。但请相信,我并非要故意侮辱你。

  Let''s not put a little misunderstanding between us.

  可别让我们之间存在哪怕一点点的误解。

  Please forgive me for a stupid choice of words.

  请原谅我的用词不当。

  I feel badly sorry about it and want you to know what happened.

  我为此感到非常内疚,所以想让你知道实情。

  Please accept my apologies for my oversight.

  请原谅我的疏忽。

  Please allow me to say sorry again.

  请允许我再次表示歉意。

  I sincerely hope you can accept my apologies and understand my situation.

  我真心希望你能理解我的处境,并接受我的道歉。

  Once again,I''m sorry for any inconvenience caused.

  再一次,我为所有的不便表示歉意。

  3.必背经典范文

  Dear professor Jackson:

  I am indeed very sorry that I missed the examination you gave on Moby-Dick last Wednesday. I feel badly about it and want you to know what happened.

  On my way to class that day,I had a flat tire,and I had to go with the mechanic when he repaired it. It took me more than one hour to get it done. A copy of the bill is enclosed.

  I sincerely hope you can accept my apologies and understand my situation. I would appreciate your allowing me to take a make up examination. I will come to your office during your office hour on Monday to discuss this possibility with you. Once again,I''m sorry fro any inconvenience caused.

  Sincerely yours,

  Alice

  译文

  亲爱的杰克逊教授:

  对于上周三错过了《白鲸》一课的考试我深表歉意。我很内疚,所以希望您能知道到底发生了什么。

  那天上学的路上,我的汽车爆胎了。我不得不去找汽修工一起修理,花了一个多小时的时间才修好。我已经将账单放在附件中。

  我真心希望您能理解我的处境,并接受我的道歉。我希望你能给我一次补考的机会。星期一上班时间,我将到您的办公室和您谈这件事的可行性。我为造成的不便再次表示歉意。

  您的学生:艾丽丝

    应用文写作-祝贺信

    祝贺信

  1.写作攻略

  英语中,祝贺信使用的频率很高。凡是遇到重大的喜庆节日,如圣诞节、新年、婚礼和生日等等,亲友间要写祝贺信。当亲友晋升、毕业、考试成功或出国留学时也要写祝贺信。祝贺信相对而言是比较容易写的,但用词必须亲切有礼、表达出真诚的喜悦感情。具体写作步骤:

  首段:表达听到喜讯的心情。

  主体段落:对喜讯进行积极评价。

  结尾段:表达衷心的祝贺之情。

  2.必背模版句型

  Congratulations,all of us feel proud of your remarkable achievements!

  祝贺你,我们都为您所取得的巨大成就感到骄傲。

  I am so pleased and happy to hear that……

  听到……我真的非常高兴。

  I write to congratulate you upon……

  我写信来祝贺你……。

  I offer you my warmest congratulations on your……

  对于你的……我表示热烈的祝贺。

  We are just as proud as can be of you and send our congratulations.

  我们为你感到由衷的自豪!祝贺你!

  I wish you still further success!

  预祝你取得更大的成功。

  We look forward to bragging about you in the years ahead.

  我们希望在未来的岁月中能骄傲地谈起你。

  Please accept our most sincere congratulations and very best wishes for all the good future in the world.

  谨向你表示祝贺和最良好的祝福。

  3.必背经典范文

  Dear Ruth,

  I offer my warmest congratulations on your promotion to Vice President of the company. I know how talented you are and how hard you've worked to attain this goal. No one could have been more deserving. How exciting it must be for you to realize your ambitions after all those years of hard working. It's been a real encouragement to me to see your efforts rewarded.

  Sincere congratulations to you. Your expertise and dedication will bring out the best of everyone on your staff. They're learning from a real professional.

  I wish you still further success.

  Sincerely yours,

  Ma Lin

  译文

  亲爱的鲁思:

  听说你当选了公司副总裁我表示热烈的祝贺。我知道你很有天赋,而且为了实现这个目标你付出了很大的努力。没人比你更应该得到这个职位。这么多年的努力终于得到了回报你该多么高兴啊。你的成功对我来说是个莫大的鼓励。

  真诚的祝贺你。你的专业和奉献将使公司所有员工都能发挥自己最佳水平。他们是在学习一个真正的专业人士。

  预祝你取得更大的成功。

  你的朋友:马林

    应用文写作-介绍信

   介绍信

  1.写作攻略

  介绍信是社交书信中较常用的,一般是向收信人介绍第三者并希望得到他的支持、帮助或者照顾。根据介绍人、被介绍人与收信人之间的关系以及介绍的目的,可以分为普通社交介绍信和公务介绍信两种。公务介绍信往往比较正式,有一定的规律可循。介绍信一般都包括:第一部分详细叙述被介绍人的情况,如姓名、年龄、学历等;第二部分说明情由,即被介绍人此行的目的;第三部分写明被介绍人希望得到哪方面的帮助并向收信人致谢。

  2.必背模版句型

  I am writing to introduce Gao Jian,one of my college classmates in Beijing.

  我写信是要介绍我在北京时的大学同学高建。

  Please allow me to introduce one of my best friends to you.

  请允许我向您介绍我最好的朋友。

  I am very glad to have this chance to write to you……

  很高兴能有这次机会给您写信……

  The bearer of this is Mr. Zhang whom I personally know to be a most deserving person for your position.

  这里介绍的张先生,我个人认为是这个位置最好的人选。

  I take pleasure in introducing to you the bearer Mr. Huang.

  很高兴能向您介绍黄先生。

  Thanks for your attention and hope to receive your reply.

  谢谢您的关注,希望能收到你的回复。

  It would be appreciated if you can give her some help.

  如能蒙您帮忙将不胜感激。

  I would be most grateful if you could lend due attention to this letter and contact me at……

  如您能对此信给予一定的关注并用……和我联系,我将非常感谢。

  In addition,I want to express my sincere thanks for your attention.

  另外,真诚的感谢您的关注。

  3.必背经典范文

  Dear Mrs. Miller,

  I'm writing to introduce to you Mr. Wang,one of my high school classmates in Beijing. He is presently working for Lenovo Technologies and is going to be transferred to its branch in your city next month.

  Since this will be the first time for him to work in a foreign country,he will possibly be faced with many problems,and especially the housing problem. He hopes to obtain your guidance and help in finding a good apartment to live. You've been living there for more than 10 years,so you are surely familiar with things there. If you can kindly help find rental quarters for her,I'll be very grateful.

  Thanks for your due attention to this letter and hope to receive your reply soon. Many thanks to the trouble you will have to take for Mr. Johnson.

  Yours sincerely,

  Zhang Hua

  译文

  亲爱的米勒夫人:

  我写这封信是为了介绍我在北京的高中同学小王。他现在联想科技公司工作,下个月他将被调到您所在城市的分部工作。

  因为这是他第一次到国外工作,所以他可能会面临很多问题,尤其是住房问题。他希望您能帮他参谋并找到一个合适的公寓。您在那里已经生活了十多年,对那里一定非常熟悉。如果您能帮他找到住处,我将非常感谢。

  谢谢您对本信给予的关注,希望能尽快收到您的回复。烦劳之处,万分感激。

  您的诚挚的:张华谨上

    应用文写作-申请信

   申请信

  1.写作攻略

  申请信是写信人就某一职位或学位等向收信人提出请求。作为一种公务性的正规信件,申请信的语言要求既有礼貌又有专业水准。考生在写作时还应该注意信息的可信性,在强调自身经历和优点时应把握尺度。具体写作步骤:

  首段:说明写信的目的,介绍自己是谁,对所申请职位或学位的单位或院校的了解以及自己将会为对方所做的贡献,信息的来源等,这一段要写的简短而又能吸引收信人的注意力。

  正文段落:介绍自己的学历或工作经历,本人的个性,已经取得的成绩,说明你为何对这一职位或学校感兴趣以及你对未来的打算等等。

  结尾段:表示感谢和期待对方给自己的申请以优先考虑。这段尤其要注意语气应礼貌而又自信,请求得到面试的机会。

  2.必背模版句型

  I am writing in response to your advertisement in Beijing Today of August 6……

  我看到了8月6日贵公司的招聘广告,于是写信……

  Your advertised position of sales manager interests me……

  我对你们招聘销售经理的广告很感兴趣,所以……

  The requirements outlined in your ad in…… for a general manager assistant appear to mesh almost exactly with my own.

  我本人的条件与你们刊登在XXX上的招聘广告中所要求的总经理助理的各种条件完全吻合。

  I think I am the right person for the job you advertised,because……

  相信我是你们招聘职位的最佳人选,因为……

  I am glad that I feel quite qualified for the position you advertised.

  对于你们在广告中所招聘的职务,我高兴地感到自己有资格申请。

  I would like to apply for the vacancy of……

  我想申请……这个空缺职位。

  I am writing this letter to recommend myself as a qualified candidate for the job of……

  我认为我是……工作的合格人选,所以我写信推荐自己。

  I welcome increasing responsibilities in a quick-paced setting.

  我愿意在快节奏地环境中承担更多的责任。

  Should you grant me a personal interview,I would be most grateful.

  如果你能给我面试的机会,我将不胜感激。

  Thanks for considering my application and I am looking forward to your reply.

  谢谢您考虑我的申请,期待着你的回复。

  If you need to know any more about me,please contact me at……

  如果你想了解我的更多信息,请……联系我。

  Any favorable consideration of my application would be appreciated.

  感谢您对我的申请的积极考虑。

  I have enclosed my resume.

  我已将简历附上。

  3.经典范文

  Dear Mr. Moore,

  Re:Secretary Position

  I am actively seeking a secretary opportunity in a demanding and fast paced office. And I believe five years experience as secretary to the president of an international corporation will qualify me for your executive secretarial position. In fact,the job described in your ad in today's Daily sounds tailor made to my abilities and experience.

  Throughout my career I have demonstrated for my employers an exceptional facility for meeting organizational objectives and demands. My duties as an executive secretary have included the routine obligations plus extensive experience in communication with and traveling to foreign countries.

  The attached resume details my business and academic background.

  I look forward to hearing from you. I can be reached at 6578-9988 during the days and 2220-0009 after 6 p.m.

  Thank you for your consideration of my application. Hope to meet you in the near future.

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Na

  译文

  亲爱的摩尔先生:

  回复:秘书职位

  我正在寻求一份秘书的工作。我相信外企5年秘书工作经验应该使我有能力胜任贵公司的秘书职位。事实上,贵公司的招聘广告上的要求我完全能够达到。

  在我工作期间表现出了良好的个人能力。我的工作除日常职责外,还包括与各方面的联系及出国业务等。

  附件中的简历详细描述了我的学业和工作经历。

  我期待着你的回复。我的联系电话:白天—6578-9988;6点后— 2220-0009.

  感谢您考虑我的申请。希望能尽快和您面谈。

  您的诚挚的:李娜

    应用文写作-建议信

    建议信

  1.写作攻略

  建议信是向收信人对某事提出写信人的建议和忠告。建议信有可能是写给个人,就其遇到的某个问题提出自己的看法和观点;也可能是写给某个组织和机构,就改进其服务提出建议或忠告。建议信要写出写信的原因,建议的内容,提出建议的理由,提出的理由要入情入理,语气一定要礼貌当先。因此建议信要写得简明扼要、目的明确、具有合理性和说服力。具体写作步骤:

  首段:表明写作意图。陈述事由,简单介绍自己,注意语气。

  主体段落:应该首先肯定对方的优点,然后再写需要改进的地方或针对具体情况提出具体建议或忠告。千万注意不要让别人以为你是在投诉,而不是提建议。

  结尾段:对提出的建议进行总结,要注意有礼貌使读者容易接受。

  写作这类题目时,考生要注意不要跑题,因为这类题很有可能写成议论文,如“我认为一……二……,所以要如何如何”。考生应该时刻记得书信的交际功能,要考虑到收信人的感受。在给对方提建议时应该时时说到I和You,要让人时刻感受到这是一种交流。

  2.必背模版句型

  I would like to suggest that……

  我想建议……

  I am writing to express my views concerning……

  我写信来是要表达有关……我的看法。

  You have asked for my advice with regard to…… and I will try to make some suggestions.

  你问我有关……的事情,我会尝试着提出一些建议。

  If I were you,I would……

  如果我是你,我会……

  It seems to me that you could……

  我认为你可以……

  I think it would be more beneficial if you could……

  我想如果你能……,可能会更好。

  I believe you will take my advice into account.

  我相信你会认真考虑我的建议的。

  I hope you will find these proposals/suggestions/recommendations practical/useful/helpful.

  我希望这些建议/意见/看法对你来说实用/有用/有帮助。

  I will be more than happy to see improvements in this regard.

  如果这方面有所改善我会非常开心的。

  I will be ready for further discussing this matter into details.

  我时刻准备着就此事进行更详尽的讨论。

  3.必背经典范文

  Dear Mary,

  I am sorry to hear that you have been ill for days and hope you have got better now. You have studied so hard that you have had no time for exercise. This is harmful for your health. You have been in poor health these years. I feel it would be more beneficial to your health if you could take more exercise in future.

  Do not think that time spent in exercise is wasted. Exercise can improve your physical constitution and refresh the mind. After one or two hours of exercise you can study better. Only when you have a strong body can you keep on studying without felling fatigue. Otherwise your study will be interrupted from time to time by fatigue or sickness.

  I am not advising you to devote all your time to exercise. What I want to say is that exercise is as useful and important as your study. I hope you can take at least one hour’s exercise every day after you are recovered. I would be more than happy to see you have a stronger body.

    Sincerely yours,

  John

  译文

  亲爱的玛丽:

  听说你近来病了许多天,使我感到很不安。但愿你现在好些了。由于你平时学习太累了,缺乏运动的时间,这对你的健康很不利。这些年来你身体一直不好,我想如果你今后多参加体育活动肯定会对身体有很多好处。

  不要把锻炼看成是浪费时间。锻炼可以增强你的身体素质,使你更有精神。运动一两个小时可以增加你的学习效率。只有有了强健的身体才能高效的学习而不觉疲倦,否则疲劳或疾病就会影响学习。

  我并不是劝你把时间都用在锻炼上,我只是想说锻炼和学习一样,同是有益而且是重要的。我希望你复原后能每天至少锻炼一个小时。看到你有个强壮的身体,我会非常高兴的。

    你的朋友:约翰

    应用文写作-投诉信

    投诉信

  1.写作攻略

  投诉信也叫抱怨信。一般是当自己的正常生活受到骚扰、自己的利益受到侵害或当社会规范有失规范时,用来表达不满情绪和提出批评。所有的投诉信都有一个共同点,就是最终是要收信人解决问题,所以需要提出解决方案。考生应该注意如果题目中没有给出解决方案,那么就要根据投诉内容中的不满提出自己的解决方案。具体写作步骤:

  首段:表明来信所要投诉的问题,尽可能做到客观礼貌,给读者留下好印象,应该记住读信人不一定就是错误的责任人,他的合作对事情的最后解决有着非常重要的作用。

  主体段落:写明投诉的原因、问题的经过及产生的后果。可以说具体的理由,也可以说问题的具体体现方式。

  结尾段:提出解决方案,不需展开。这段应体现书信的礼貌原则,可以用类似“如果你能……,我将十分感激”这样的表达方式。还要注意做到公平、公正。

  2.必背模版句型

  I am writing to make a complaint about……

  我写信是为了投诉……

  I am most reluctant to complain,but……

  我非常不愿意投诉,但……

  One annoying aspect of your service is……

  你们的服务项目中一个令人不满的地方是……

  I have been pleased with your services for years,but now I feel very disappointed.

  多年来我一直很满意你们的服务,但现在我非常失望。

  I would like to draw your attention to the problem/fault……

  我想让您知道这个问题/错误……

  I am writing to inform you that I find…… unsatisfactory.

  我写信是为了告诉你我发现……令人非常不满意。

  I wish to express my dissatisfaction/disappointment about……

  我想表达我对……的不满/失望。

  It would be highly appreciated if you could……

  如果你能……我将万分感谢。

  I trust you will take my complaints seriously and……

  我相信你会认真对待我的投诉,并且……

  I hope you will give due attention to this matter.

  希望对此事你能给予足够的重视。

  I would like to get this matter settled by the end of this month.

  我希望能在月底解决这事。

  I could not be more satisfied if you can kindly……

  如果你能……我将会非常满意。

  I would appreciate it very much if you could……

  如果你能……我将非常感谢。

  3.必背经典范文

  Dear Sir or Madam,

  I am writing to inform you that I wish to move into a new room next semester. I would like to have a single room, because I find the present sharing arrangement inconvenient.

  I am dissatisfied with my present roommate because of his inconsiderate behavior. For one thing,his friends are constantly visiting him;for another,he regularly makes calls at night. In addition,he often uses my things without asking for my permission. Under such circumstances,I find it difficult to concentrate on my studies,and I am falling behind in my assignments.

  I believe you will agree that the only solution is for me to move into a room of my own,where I will be free from these kinds of distractions. I would be very grateful if you could arrange a single room for me,preferably not in the same building.

  Sincerely yours,

  Tom Williams

  译文

  亲爱的女士或先生:

  我写信来是告诉您下学期我想搬到一个新房间。我想要一个单独房间,因为我觉得现在这样合住非常不方便。

  我之所以对我现在的室友不满是因为他毫不顾及他人的行为。一方面,他老是有朋友来访;另一方面,他夜里经常打电话。另外,他经常不经过我允许就用我的东西。在这种情况下,我很难专心学习,现在我的成绩已经下降了。

  我相信您肯定同意惟一的解决办法就是我搬到单独的房间,那样就没有什么干扰了。如果您能帮我安排一个单独的房间,最好不要在目前这个楼里,我将万分感谢。

  您真挚的:汤姆·威廉姆

    应用文写作-咨询信

    咨询信

  1.写作攻略

  咨询信的主要目的是为了寻求所需的信息、资料和情况等。写这类书信时应注意礼节,切不可使用带有生硬或命令口吻的词句,也不可把别人的帮助视为理所当然。考生还要注意只能就收信人能够提供的信息进行提问。具体写作步骤:

  首段:简单叙述题目场景,说明写作意图,清楚表明写这封信的目的是要寻求什么样的信息。

  主体段落:询问具体问题。可以问一些与命题所设置的问题相关的内容,但这些问题必须是与题目本身要求获取的信息是有相关性的。考生也可以自己认为比较重要的问题单独列一个段落,将其内容细化。考生可以根据虚拟的自身情况提出相关的问题。

  结尾段:表明急切获取信息的心情,提供联系方式以便收信人与你联络,对收信人所能给予的任何帮助都要表示感谢,即使你知道这些帮助是收信人应该做的。

  在写咨询信时特别要注意使用句式的选择,在询问问题时要使用“Would you please tell me……”之类的正式疑问句式。

  2.必背模版句型

  I wonder if you could tell me the information about……

  我想请问您是否能告诉我有关……的消息。

  I am writing for the information about……

  我写信时想知道关于……的消息。

  I would be forever grateful if you could send me information concerning……

  如果你能将关于……的信息发给我,我将不胜感激。

  I would like to know whether you can provide me with information regarding……

  我想知道你是否能提供我关于……的信息。

  I wish to request materials for……

  我想要关于……的资料。

  I’d very much appreciate your advice on such matters as how to contact the officers who would be willing to assist……

  如何联络那些愿意帮助……的官员,请您提供建议,我将不胜感激。

  Would you be so kind to tell me……?

  你可以告诉我有关……?

  I look forward to your immediate response.

  我期待着你的及时反馈。

  Your attention to this letter would be highly appreciated.

  感谢你对此信的关注。

  I am waiting for your quick reply.

  我在等待你的快速答复。

  Thank you in advance for your cooperation/assistance.

  提前谢谢你的帮助。

  3.必背经典范文

  Dear Sir or Madam,

  I have talked to the Sunshine Travel Agency about their vacation package,which includes for $158.00 round trip air fare to San Diego,plus accommodations for four days and three nights at the Glorious Hotel,and one day’s use of a rental car with unlimited mileage. Therefore,I would be grateful if you could supply me with the following information.

  Please let me know whether you do indeed have such an arrangement with budget traveling of San Diego,the tour promoter. Are there any surcharges or time restrictions?We are tentatively planning to take our vacation in early June.

  Thank you in advance for your assistance and hope to hear from you soon.

  Yours truly,

  Diana Moore

  译文

  亲爱的先生/女士:

  我已经同阳光旅行社谈过了他们的旅行套装,158美金圣地亚哥双飞游,包括在光辉酒店4天3夜的住宿费及一天的不限里程的租车服务。因此如果你能为我提供以下信息,我将不胜感激。

  你们是否真的有圣地亚哥自助游的项目。阳光旅行社的收费是否过高?这个项目有没有时间限制?我们初步打算在6月初去度假。

  对于你的帮助提前表示感谢,希望能够尽快收到你的回复。

  你们忠实的:黛安娜·摩尔

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